CO2 emissions and ETS costs of the European integrated steel industry: Outlook to 2035

The EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) has entered Phase IV, which will see further tightening of the regulations for EU steel mills. Meanwhile, CO2 allowances have been trading on the ETS at prices above €50/t of CO2 in 2021, and the EU Green Deal announced by the EC will likely drive prices further upwards. All these developments will have profound consequences for European integrated steel mills, but also for mining companies and other suppliers to the EU steel industry. In addition, the EC is looking to develop a Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism, which in the future may require foreign steel mills exporting steel to the EU to report their emissions and pay import charges based on the ETS system. The ETS is also considered a template for other countries to follow or even to join in the future.

SteelConsult International has published a unique study “CO2 emissions and ETS costs of the European integrated steel industry: Outlook to 2035”, providing unrivalled insight into the carbon footprint and ETS costs of the European integrated steel industry.

Key features of the study:

  • Provides detailed insight into the full carbon footprint upto hot rolling of 26 European integrated steel mills (2006-2035);
  • Explains how the ETS works, and how steel is treated in Phase IV of the ETS;
  • Covers CO2 emissions and ETS costs by process and product;
  • Incl. Scope 1 direct and indirect emissions (from waste gases), Scope 2 and Scope 3 emissions;
  • Forecasts are based on the new regulations for Phase IV of the ETS and the latest expected decarbonization initiatives by the mills;


Key questions answered in the study:

  • How does the ETS work, and what does it mean for the steel industry?
    What will change for steel mills in Phase IV of the ETS compared to Phase III?
  • What is the carbon footprint of each mill, how is it composed and how does it compare to the rest of the industry?
  • Who are the most and the least carbon efficient performers, why and how may this change over time?
  • How has the carbon footprint developed over time, and what will be the impact of future decarbonization initiatives?
  • How high are free allowances, shortages and ETS costs, and how will these develop in the future?


In total, subscribers will receive:

  • A Summary Report (90 slides)
  • An extensive summary of statistics in Excel
  • 26 Excel plant databases
Please request our brochure for more information.

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